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Abramham's altars of clay and stone were systems of votive offerings which functioned differently than the city states like Sodom and Gomorrah. They were networks of free people that formed a "Polis" through charity rather than force.


A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes. Some historians define a votive offering or tama as something that may be offered at the icon or shrine but sometimes historians are more superstitious than the people who survived history.

What we know of votive offerings has often been obscured by a historical vision devoid of practical knowledge of the bonds of a free but temporal society. A Votive is also defined as "offered, given, dedicated, etc., in accordance with a vow." There are two uses of the word vow in the Bible.

Votive offerings may have a religious side to them but the definition of religion has changed throughout the centuries. The only time religion is mentioned in the Bible in a good sense is its reference to Pure religion which had to do with the care and welfare of the needy of society without the institutions of force found in many governments at that time.

In the Old Testament, a votive offering was a voluntary offering vowed to God but not required by the Law. The technical term in Hebrew for such an offering is neder (vow).

The Torah makes provision for "freewill offerings" which may be made by any individual. These are different from votive offerings which are linked to a vow or prayer. Understanding that the temples were places before they were buildings and they had a function in society like the altars of clay and stone.

"Either a bullock or a lamb that hath any thing superfluous or lacking in his parts, that mayest thou offer [for] a freewill offering[1]; but for a vow[2] it shall not be accepted." Leviticus 22:23

In this verse a clear differentiation is made between the two. The Hebrew root letters for a freewill offering are נדב (NunDaletBeit) which is the noun nadab[1] from the verb nadab[3], but for a votive offering there are the letters נדר (NunDaletReish) forming the noun neder[2] from the root word, a verb, nadar[4].

"Feed my sheep!" Before Jesus was able to provide the people with loaves and fishes in Mark 6:39 He "commanded" His disciples to "make" the people sit down in Tens. And then those goups were to organize in companies upon companies in divisions and "ranks" of "fifties and hundreds".
Christ also told His disciples not to be like the rulers and princes of the Gentiles who provided benefits by exercising authority one over the other.
Everyone who got the Baptism of Christ was "put out" of the Jewish synagogue system which was also composed of ten families through which they provided welfare with the "Corban" of the people.
Your ministers should not be rulers but servants because Christ came to serve. Every man should be led by the Holy Spirit. The minister is supposed to be serving by making the people voluntarily organize themselves in Companies of tens, fifties and hundreds, and thousands so that people may love one another in the practice of Pure Religion.
If all the people who say they are Christians were actually doing what Christ commanded socialism would be obsolete and no one could be or would be exploited. Socialism is the religion you get when you refuse to do what Christ commanded and have no Pure Religion.

In the text we see "[as] a freewill offering" appearing with an additional letter נְדָבָה֙ (NunDaletBeitHey). It takes this form some ten times[5] but appears in other form some 16 additional forms.[6]

In the text we see "but for a vow" appearing with additional letters וּלְנֵ֖דֶר (VavLamedNunDaletReish).

The whole system of altars of clay and stone allowed the people to care for the needs of society without waiving individual rights. Contrary to the systems of Sodom and Gomorrah or Nimrod of Babylon and the Pharaoh of Egypt they strengthened the poor.[7]

Is voting bad

So much has changed since the original Constitution when we could say that the “People of a state are entitled to all rights which formerly belonged to the king by his prerogative.”[8] Or we could argue that “In one sense, the term ‘sovereign’ has for its correlative ‘subject.’ In this sense, the term can receive no application; for it has no object in the [Original] Constitution of the United States. Under that Constitution there are citizens, but no subjects.”[9] “For when the revolution took place, the people of each state became themselves sovereign; and in that character hold the absolute right to all their navigable waters, and the soils under them, for their own common use, subject only to the rights since surrendered by the constitution to the general government.”[10]

Originally, citizenship did not include the title or sense of subject ,but later in the United States, we see a citizenship binding subjects to the laws of a “sovereign”. Prior to the Fourteenth Amendment, “No private person has a right to complain, by suit in court, on the ground of a breach of Constitution. The constitution it is true, is a compact, but he is not a party to it. The states are party to it.”[11]

Today, “in the United States ‘it [citizenship] is a political obligation’ depending not on ownership of land, but on the enjoyment of the protection of government; and it ‘binds the citizen to the observance of all laws’ of his sovereign.”[12]

This is not so much do to the fact that legislators have altered laws but because the people have altered their relationship with the government. Because of the rise of the welfare state and the people not “Constantly bearing in mind that in entering into society individuals must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest…"[13] the status of American citizenship has changed. People today are already in a political system that is a direct or indirect democracy certainly have motivation at least to vote for their own protection.

Democracies are not always a good form of government and for centuries in America they were not considered to good. In fact, until World War II democracy was considered “A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any form of direct expression. Results in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic - negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether it is based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard for consequences. Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.”[14]

If you live in a democracy and you have a right to vote. You certainly may feel a need to vote in self defense in order to protect yourself and your neighbor from the covetous practices of the welfare state and those who desire to rule over and even rob their neighbor through socialist schemes of wealth distribution.

John Adams: “Democracy... while it lasts is more bloody than either aristocracy or monarchy. Remember, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There is never a democracy that did not commit suicide."

Israel, before they made the grave mistake of electing to have a king/commander in chief supported their government entirely with freewill offerings. They had gathered in small groups tens and linked those groups through a network of tens, hundreds and thousands. Jesus commanded that his disciples do the same thing. The primary purpose was to create a daily ministration based on charity rather than the forced contributions of Rome and Herod.

Herod had set up such a system if compelled sacrifices of the people with the support of the Pharisees which is referenced in the Bible as Corban. It was a system of taxation to fund the welfare system of Judea.

Originally welfare in free societies were based on a systems of charity. That system of votive offerings was originally based on faith, hope and charity but under these systems which are rooted in force, fear, and fealty the nation is altered. This can be seen under FDR's New Deal or LBJ's Great Society. Any system of forced offerings makes the people merchandise and often curse children with debt. It is because these systems of socialism are essentially covetous practices that make the people a surety for debt.

The Bible is filled with warnings of these one purse schemes which run to death.

We have only a few things to do:

Repent which means to think a different way.
Seek to establish a government that run on love and charity instead of fear and force.
Seek righteousness in everything we do where ever we are at or what ever status we are in.
While we do that we should do that together in small intimate groups networked together.

Vows and Prayers

Today the word vow is defined “a solemn promise, pledge, or personal commitment: marriage vows...” But in the KJV of the Bible vow is translated from a word that means prayer. Translating horkos as vow might lead someone to think that Jesus prohibited vows yet the original words of the text may reveal a very different meaning.

These little deceptions through sophistry can go a long way to confuse the whole world. We have shown this a hundred times and more in our writings. Sophistry like this leads many people astray and has kept people from becoming doers of the word.

Some translations use the word vow instead of oath in Matthew 5:33 but this leads to confusion since we see another word for vow which appears in the biblical text in Acts 18:18 where we see that Paul took a vow, Acts 21:23, and in James 5:15 where the word is also translated prayer.

  • Acts 18:18 "And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for he had a vow <euche>."
  • Acts 21:23 "Do therefore this that we say to thee: We have four men which have <euche> a vow on them;"
  • James 5:15 "And the prayer <euche> of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.

You do not have to become a Greek scholar but you should be willing to peek over the theological fence that other men have constructed in your mind with their different translations and private interpretations. The word we see for vow in these verses is euche or euchomai which means a prayer to God, a vow, what you desire or intend to do. It is the word from which you get eucharistos or Eucharist.

Other words like proseuche translated prayer 36 times or proseuchomai which is the word pray almost 90 times are extensions of this word we see translated vow.

The word euche is clearly not the same as word horkos more often translated oath but some people want to imagine that they can use these words interchangeably. They do the truth and Christ a disservice and if they continue in this they are bearing false witness about what Christ actually said and meant.

We have seen how translators can translate five different words into the same English word and the same Greek word into five or more different English words. If you couple this practice with the truth that each English word can have many different definitions then you should clearly see without some reference to original texts that you are opening the door to confusion and even lies. There should be a consistency in translating and the use of words in translations and especially in formulating your own conversations about Christ's doctrines.

So the word vow can mean several things. Matrimony is established with vows publicly announced before witnesses and God. This is not the same as Marriage vows as established by the authority of the State which fences a husband and wife under the authority of the State.

By not examining the meaning of words and the purpose and spirit of the original authors including their choice of words we are dissembling the Gospel of Christ and equivocate over the meanings of His words by worshiping what we want to believe is true rather than accepting the truth of what Christ actually said. We are leading people astray and are fencing in our thinking by our own personal interpretation and prejudice.

Don't be led astray by bad translations and other tools of sophistry.

A vow, as used with the translation of the Greek word eucho and used in the Bible, is a prayer.

A vow is a statement.

"A vow is not an oath."[15]

"A vow is not an oath."[16]

"A vow is not an oath."[17]

A vow is a statement.

A vow (euche¯) is a willing undertaking of good things. [18]

A vow is not even a promise.

Can a vow be like vote?

A promise is "a declaration that something will or will not be done, given, etc." and it is made to someone or some organization but a vow is an expression of intent to the general public but between you and God. It does not bring you under the authority of others, adjure or establish a jurisdiction under the authority of others.

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  1. 1.0 1.1 05071 ^הבדנ^ nᵉdabah \@ned-aw-baw’\@ from 05068; n f; {See TWOT on 1299 @@ "1299a"} AV-freewill offering 15, offerings 9, free offering 2, freely 2, willing offering 1, voluntary offering 1, plentiful 1, voluntarily 1, voluntary 1, willing 1, willingly 1; 26
    1) voluntariness, free-will offering
    1a) voluntariness
    1b) freewill, voluntary, offering
  2. 2.0 2.1 05088 ^רדנ^ neder \@neh’- der\@ or ^רדנ^ neder \@nay’- der\@ from the verb nadar 05087; n m; {See TWOT on 1308 @@ "1308a"} AV-vow 58, vowed 2; 60
    1) vow, votive offering
  3. 05068 ^בדנ^ nadab \@naw-dab’\@ a primitive root BeitDaletNun; v; {See TWOT on 1299} AV-offered willingly 6, willingly offered 5, willing 2, offered 1, willing 1, offered freely 1, give willingly 1; 17
    1) to incite, impel, make willing
    1a) (Qal) to incite, impel
    1b) (Hithpael)
    1b1) to volunteer
    1b2) to offer free-will offerings
    • See also 05069 בדנ nᵉdab translated AV-freely offered, freewill offering, offering willingly, minded of their own freewill; defined
    to volunteer, offer freely
  4. 05087 ^רדנ^ nadar \@naw-dar’\@ a primitive root; v; {See TWOT on 1308} AV-vow 30, made 1; 31
    1) to vow, make a vow
    1a) (Qal) to vow a vow
  5. Exodus 35:29 HEB: בְנֵי־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל נְדָבָ֖ה לַיהוָֽה׃ פ
    KJV: brought a willing offering unto the LORD,
    Exodus 36:3
    HEB: אֵלָ֥יו ע֛וֹד נְדָבָ֖ה בַּבֹּ֥קֶר בַּבֹּֽקֶר׃
    KJV: it [withal]. And they brought yet unto him free offerings every morning.
    Leviticus 7:16
    HEB: נֶ֣דֶר ׀ א֣וֹ נְדָבָ֗ה זֶ֚בַח קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ
    KJV: [be] a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten
    Leviticus 22:23
    HEB: שָׂר֣וּעַ וְקָל֑וּט נְדָבָה֙ תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ
    KJV: that mayest thou offer [for] a freewill offering; but for a vow
    Deuteronomy 23:23
    HEB: לַיהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ נְדָבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ
    KJV: and perform; [even] a freewill offering, according as thou hast vowed Ezra 3:5
    HEB: וּלְכֹ֛ל מִתְנַדֵּ֥ב נְדָבָ֖ה לַיהוָֽה׃
    KJV: and of every one that willingly offered a freewill offering unto the LORD.
    Ezra 8:28
    HEB: וְהַכֶּ֤סֶף וְהַזָּהָב֙ נְדָבָ֔ה לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י
    KJV: and the gold [are] a freewill offering unto the LORD
    Ezekiel 46:12
    HEB: יַעֲשֶׂה֩ הַנָּשִׂ֨יא נְדָבָ֜ה עוֹלָ֣ה אֽוֹ־
    KJV: shall prepare a voluntary burnt offering
    Ezekiel 46:12
    HEB: אֽוֹ־ שְׁלָמִים֮ נְדָבָ֣ה לַֽיהוָה֒ וּפָ֣תַֽח
    KJV: or peace offerings voluntarily unto the LORD,
    Hosea 14:4
    HEB: מְשׁ֣וּבָתָ֔ם אֹהֲבֵ֖ם נְדָבָ֑ה כִּ֛י שָׁ֥ב
    KJV: I will love them freely: for mine anger
  6. nə·ḏā·ḇāh — 10 Occ., but other occurrences have different letters
    bin·ḏā·ḇāh — 1 Occ., han·nə·ḏā·ḇāh — 1 Occ., lin·ḏā·ḇāh — 2 Occ., nə·ḏā·ḇō·wṯ — 3 Occ., niḏ·ḇaṯ — 1 Occ., niḏ·ḇō·wṯ — 2 Occ., niḏ·ḇō·w·ṯām — 1 Occ., niḏ·ḇō·w·ṯê·ḵem — 1 Occ., wə·niḏ·ḇō·ṯe·ḵā — 1 Occ., wə·niḏ·ḇō·ṯê·ḵem — 2 Occ., ḇin·ḏā·ḇāh — 1 Occ.
  7. Ezekiel 16:49 Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy.
  8. Lansing vs Smith 21 D. 89...4 Wendell 9, 20 (1829)
  9. Chishom v.Georgia, 2 Dall. (U.S.) 419,455, 1L Ed 440 (1793).
  10. Martin vs Waddell, 41 US (16 Pet) 367, 410 (1842)
  11. Supreme Court of Ga, Padelford, Fay & Co. vs Mayor& Alderman, City of Savannah, 14 Ga. 438,520 (1854)
  12. Julliard v. Greenman, 110 U.S.421
  13. Andrew Jackson, March 4, 1833.
  14. 1928 U.S. Army Training Manual
  15. The Distinguished Jurist's Primer, Volume 1, By Averroës, Ibn Rushd
  16. Southeastern Mennonite Conference
  17. The Monthly Repository of Theology and General Literature, Volume 19 published prior to 1923