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  • Herod the Great (c. 74–1 BC)[1], client king of Judea who rebuilt the Second Temple (in Jerusalem) into Herod's Temple. He instituted the Baptism of the temple that established the Corban of the Pharisees that made the word of God to none effect.
“Herod’s greatest fault was his ungovernable passion both in love and hate. This coupled with his constant fear of losing this throne led to most of his ‘crimes’ especially those committed within his own family.”[2]

Temple of Herod

There were lots of temples and they had a governmental purpose. The Second Temple expanded by Herod to be the Temple in Jerusalem was no exception.

Originally Israel only built a tabernacle that moved about. David started building a stone temple after the people rejected God in 1 Samuel 8 but repented. Solomon who increased the yoke of the people built the first temple and later in Ezra a modest Second Temple was built. Herod the Great would find the funds and a way to expand that temple of dead stone.

Those baptized into Herod's government went to Herod's temple to receive welfare and Social Security and other public benefits distributed through local synagogues. More on the two types of baptism.

Judea began following this Roman and ancient social model that reached back to the days of Babylon and Nimrod in earnest with Herod the Great's own free Bread and circuses with a system dependent upon registration through the synagogues and Temple in Jerusalem.

His system for the Jew would include Baptism, scribes to do the accounting and a Corban that would make the word of God to none effect. King Herod also built temple for the same function as his Temple in Jerusalem including King Herod's Temple to Roma and Augustus.

Herod the Great had a grand scheme of a vast membership in a social welfare scheme called Corban.[3] You joined with a ceremony of ritual baptism after filing an application for membership with the administering “scribe”.[4] Payment of prescribed fees was required and annual accounting of what you paid or did not pay was made available to the proper authorities.

With annual contributions collected and recorded by the scribes this system of individual sacrifice to support the needy of society became popular with many people who were jealous and envious of the rich or just covetous of their neighbor’s goods. With guaranteed entitlements and forced contributions the apathy and avarice of the people flourished.

Members were given a white stone as a form of national ID[5] and Herod was able to expand his hope of a kingdom of God on earth by this religious system of social security (Corban) which provided for a statutory enforcement and collection from membership in the form of a tax.

The actual carved stone used in the aqueduct that brought water into Jerusalem. Using public charity funds for this government project enraged the people to riot because they saw their Social Security.

Pilate "... used the sacred treasure of the temple, called corban (qorban), to pay for bringing water into Jerusalem by an aqueduct. A crowd came together and clamored against him..."[6] Because those funds were for their individual social welfare and the people complained.

Few understood that what should have been for their welfare had brought them into bondage though they had been warned centuries before in the sacred text.[7] Paul and others repeated that warning for the First century Church.[8] But Modern Christians are oblivious because they hire pastors who tickle their ears with Christian fables.

Building a central temple of dead stone was never a part of God's plan for men. It was Lively Stones of a Living Altar which is God's plan for mankind. Jesus Christ knew why the "ancient men" wept in Ezra 3:12 at the building of the Second Temple[9] and came to take the kingdom of God from the Pharisees and men who did not bear fruit and was building that original temple of lively stones with men of faith who let God write upon their heart and upon their minds.

There were rebels, malcontents, and doomsdayers as always. There were tax protesters, religious zealots, and extreme fundamentalists who spoke of moral declines, collapsing economies, and other calamities to come.

“The Zealots were a splinter group of the Pharisees. The Pharisees were content to ignore the Romans. The Zealots were not. They wanted to drive them out. They planned to establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth - a kingdom ruled by God and not by man. When Jesus said ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s’, the Zealots would have agreed with him. For all the produce of God’s land belonged to God and this included the Roman tribute. The main Zealot center was Galilee. The revolt really started when Galilee was annexed to the Roman province in 44 C.E.”[2]

  • Herod Archelaus (23 BC–c. AD 18), ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea from 4 BC to 6 AD, when Judaea province was formed under direct Roman rule, at the time of the Census of Quirinius.[10] He was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, the brother of Herod Antipas, and the half-brother of Herod Philip I. In 4 BC Augustus allotted to him the greater part of the kingdom (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) with the title of ethnarch (not king).

Archelaus is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13-23). In it, Joseph, Mary and Jesus fled to Egypt to avoid the Massacre of the Innocents. When Herod the Great died, Joseph was told by an angel in a dream to return to Israel (presumably to Bethlehem). However, upon hearing that Archelaus had succeeded his father as ruler of Judaea he "was afraid to go thither" (Matthew 2:22), and was again notified in a dream to go to Galilee. This is Matthew's explanation of why Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea but grew up in Nazareth.

The beginning and conclusion of Jesus's Parable of the minas in the Gospel of Luke 19:12-27 may refer to Archelaus' journey to Rome. Some interpreters conclude from this that Jesus' parables and preaching made use of events familiar to the people as examples for bringing his spiritual lessons to life. Others read the allusion as arising from later adaptations of Jesus's parables in the oral tradition, before the parables were recorded in the gospels.

  • Herod Antipas (20 BC–c. AD 40), tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, called "Herod the Tetrarch" or "Herod" in the New Testament up to Acts 4:27, and described therein as ordering John the Baptist's death and Jesus. Some believe he repented and converted to Christianity.

After being named to the throne by Caesar Augustus upon the death of his father, Herod the Great, in 4 BC, and subsequent Ethnarch rule by his brother, Herod Archelaus, Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea as a client state of the Roman Empire. He was responsible for building projects at Sepphoris and Betharamphtha, and more important for the construction of his capital Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Named in honor of his patron, the emperor Tiberius, the city later became a center of rabbinic learning.

Antipas divorced his first wife Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabatea, in favour of Herodias, who had formerly been married to his brother Herod Philip I. (Antipas was Herod the Great's son by Malthace, while Herod II was his son by Mariamne II.)

While Archelaus was deemed incompetent by Augustus and replaced with a prefect in 6 AD, Antipas would govern Galilee and Perea for forty-two years.

Antipas faced more immediate problems in his own tetrarchy after John the Baptist – in 28/29 AD according to the Gospel of Luke.

Among those baptized by John was Jesus of Nazareth, who began his own ministry in Galilee – causing Antipas, according to Matthew and Mark, to fear that the Baptizer had been raised from the dead.

Luke alone among the Gospels states that a group of Pharisees warned Jesus that Antipas was plotting his death, whereupon Jesus denounced the tetrarch as a "fox" and declared that he, Jesus, would not fall victim to such a plot because "it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem".

Antipas' fall from power was due to Caligula and to his own nephew Agrippa, brother of Herodias. When Agrippa fell into debt during the reign of Tiberius despite his connections with the imperial family, Herodias persuaded Antipas to provide for him, but the two men quarreled and Agrippa departed.

  • Herod II (c. 27 BC–33 AD), sometimes called Herod Philip I, father of Salome
  • Philip the Tetrarch (4 BC–AD 34), sometimes called Herod Philip II, tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis
  • Herod Agrippa I (c. 10 BC–AD 44), client king of Judaea, called "King Herod" or "Herod" in Acts 12 of the New Testament
  • Herod of Chalcis, also known as Herod III, king of Chalcis (AD 41–48)
  • Herod Agrippa II (AD 27–100), tetrarch of Chalcis who was described in Acts of the Apostles as "King Agrippa" before whom Paul of Tarsus defended himself
  • Herodes Atticus (AD 101–177), an unrelated Greek aristocrat who served as a Roman Senator and proponent of Sophism

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  1. Some put the date at 4BC. The date of Herod's death in 4BC is highly disputed and likely wrong based on a misidentified lunar eclipse. There were other eclipses. It is possible that a transcriber or the that the author of Luke's gospel made an error identifying which census or there was more census. There were also a number of the local census of varying kinds and what Quirinius was doing and when ruling is also disputed because there is some evidence that he was in charge during other periods including some rebellions in Galilee. None of this is substantive to the message. Some people try disputing the existence of Christ with this conflicting information. These dates used is based on Josephus who does not dispute Christians and verifies them with Book 20, Chapter 9, 1 of the Antiquities with the line "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James".
  2. 2.0 2.1 Living in the Time of Jesus of Nazareth by Peter Connolly. Published: Steimatzky 1983.
  3. Mark 7:13 “Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.”
  4. Scribe is from the Greek grammateus meaning “a clerk, scribe, esp.a public servant, secretary, recorder, whose office and influence differed in different states”
  5. “The missionaries… with their... white stones, would come back with the same wallets full of money, in foreign currency. Once put into Jewish currency by the money-changers [porters of the temple], it would be stored in vaults ...Herod’s scheme of initiation into a new form of Judaism was immensely successful....” Jesus and the Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Barbara Thiering, Harper Collins: 1992
  6. 20The Aqueduct- Josephus, War 2.175-177, Antiq 18.60-62.
  7. 22“And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them:” Romans 11:9. Exodus 20:17, Exodus 23:32, Exodus 34:12...; Proverbs 1:10, Proverbs 23:1...; Romans 13:9, Mark 7:22, Matthew 5:34, James 5:12, 2 Peter 2:3
  8. Episkeptomai “ to look upon or after ... have care for, provide for:”
  9. Ezra 3:12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, [who were] ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy: 13 So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people: for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off.
  10. Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat mentioned in Res Gestae - The Deeds of Augustus by Augustus placing him as consul as early as 12 B.C.. Caesar's son Gaius Caesar was sent to administer Syria as an Imperial Legate in 1 B.C. and the Roman historian Tacitus Annals mentions in Book 3 Chapter 48 that Quirinius was an advisor to Gaius around 1 A.D Quirinius was later the governor of Syria during another census.

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