2 Corinthians 1

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The Second Epistle

This second epistle to the Church in Corinth differs from the first. It is certainly shorter.[1] It is actually to all the churches in Achaia which included much of what we would call Greece today. Eventhough it is much shorter the word "Grace"[2] appears twice as much in 2 Corinthians than it does in 1 Corinthians.

And the English term love appears 5 times in 1 Corinthians, and a 11 times 2 Corinthians. While the Greek word "agape"[3], a noun, appears 11 times in 1 Corinthians, 9 times 2 Corinthians but "agapao" the verb, appears 11 times in 1 Corinthians, 9 times 2 Corinthians. The term love in some form, either verb or noun, love or charity, actually appears 22 times in 1 Corinthians, 18 times 2 Corinthians.

It is clear that the second epistle is focused on love and forgiveness, grace and charity.

But as we will clearly see Paul is not without his warnings and a reference to those who fall amongst the long lists[4] of people who are clearly not saved in chapters 6[5] and 12[6] and chapter 13 in reference to his "sharpness" if they fail to heed his warnings and examine their faith.[7]

Salutation to the saints

1 ¶ Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia: 2 Grace[2] be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.


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Salutation in verse 1 and 2 Paul the Apostle of Jesus Christ who long with Peter says Jesus is another King[8] by calling Him Christ. Paul is claiming he is an Ambassador to that kingdom of God.
Paul had persecuted the Church.[9]
All Achaia - likely means the whole of Greece including Athens. Two deputies would be chosen by the churches to take charge of the contribution (2Co 8:18, 19, 22) collected in Achaia at Corinth as we saw in 1 Corinthians 16.
Be ye Doer of of the word and followers of The Way.
Paul and other called out ministers of God's government were the FEMA of Early Christians who did not eat of the free bread and benefits of Rome and its temples because they exercise authority one over the other which Christ forbid when he appointed his kingdom to His little flock.
These ministers suffered hardships and were often helped "by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf" which Paul states in verse 11.
They were not isolated home churches or divided denominations but an international Living Network of fervent charity bearing fruit through a vast daily ministration that was not a part of the administrations of the world.
What is pure Religion and what is Public religion?
What are the Benefits of the world and the benefits of the kingdom of God?
What are the wages of unrighteousness of the world and the the Corban of the Pharisees?

3 ¶ Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort;[10] 4 Who comforteth[11] us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort[11] them which are in any trouble, by the comfort[10] wherewith we ourselves are comforted[11] of God. 5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation[10] also aboundeth by Christ. 6 And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation[10] and salvation, which is effectual in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted[11], it is for your consolation[10] and salvation.


7 ¶ And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation[10]. 8 For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life: 9 But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead: 10 Who delivered us from so great a death[12], and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver us; 11 Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift[13] bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

Testimony of our conscience

12 ¶ For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience[14], that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace[2] of God, we have had our conversation[15] in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward. 13 For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end; 14 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.

A second benefit

15 ¶ And in this confidence I was minded to come unto you before, that ye might have a second benefit;[2] 16 And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judaea. 17 When I therefore was thus minded, did I use lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea yea, and nay nay? 18 But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay. 19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea and nay, but in him was yea. 20 For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the glory of God by us. 21 Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; 22 Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 23 Moreover I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth. 24 Not for that we have dominion[16] over your faith, but are helpers of your joy: for by faith ye stand.

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Corinthians Index

Corinthians: Introduction | 1 Corinthians 1 | 1 Corinthians 2 | 1 Corinthians 3 | 1 Corinthians 4 | 1 Corinthians 5 | 1 Corinthians 6 | 1 Corinthians 7 | 1 Corinthians 8 | 1 Corinthians 9 | 1 Corinthians 10 | 1 Corinthians 11 | 1 Corinthians 12 | 1 Corinthians 13 | 1 Corinthians 14 | 1 Corinthians 15 | 1 Corinthians 16

2 Corinthians 1 | 2 Corinthians 2 | 2 Corinthians 3 | 2 Corinthians 4 | 2 Corinthians 5 | 2 Corinthians 6 | 2 Corinthians 7 | 2 Corinthians 8 | 2 Corinthians 9 | 2 Corinthians 10 | 2 Corinthians 11 | 2 Corinthians 12 | 2 Corinthians 13 | Bible


  1. There are 6,830 words in 1 Corinthians and only 4,477 words in 2 Corinthians
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 5485 ~χάρις~ charis \@khar’-ece\@ from 5463; n f AV-grace 130, favour 6, thanks 4, thank 4, thank + 2192 3, pleasure 2, misc 7; 156
    1) grace
    1a) that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech
    2) good will, loving-kindness, favour
    2a) of the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues
    3) what is due to grace
    3a) the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace
    3b) the token or proof of grace, benefit
    3b1) a gift of grace
    3b2) benefit, bounty
    4) thanks, (for benefits, services, favours), recompense, reward
  3. 26 ~ἀγάπη~ agape \@ag-ah’-pay\@ from 25; n f AV-love 86, charity 27, dear 1, charitably+ 2596 1, feast of charity 1; 116
    1) {Singular} brotherly love, affection, good will, love, benevolence {#Joh 15:13 Ro 13:10 1Jo 4:18}
    1a) Of the love of men to men; esp. Christians towards Christians which is enjoined and prompted by their religion, whether the love be viewed as in the soul or expressed {#Mt 14:12 1Co 13:1-4,8 14:1 2Co 2:4 Ga 5:6 Phm 5,7 1Ti 1:5 Heb 6:10 10:24 1Jo 4:7 Re 2:4,19} &c
    1b) Of the love of men towards God {#Lu 11:42 Joh 5:42 1Jo 2:15 3:17 4:12 5:3}
    1c) Of the love of God towards man {#Ro 5:8 8:39 2Co 13:14}
    1d) Of the love of God towards Christ {#Joh 15:10 17:26}
    1e) Of the love of Christ towards men {#Joh 15:8-13 2Co 5:14 Ro 8:35 Eph 3:19}
    2) {plural} love feasts expressing and fostering mutual love which used to be held by Christians before the celebration of the Lord’s supper, and at which the poorer Christians mingled with the wealthier and partook in common with the rest of the food provided at the expense of the wealthy. {#Jude 12 2Pe 2:13 Ac 2:42,46 1Co 11:17-34}
    • Syn.: ~φιλία~ 5373 ~ἀγάπη~, signifying properly (v. s. ~αγαραω~ 25) love which chooses its object, is taken from the LXX, where its connotation is more general, into the NT, and there used exclusively to express that spiritual bond of love between God and man and between man and man, in Christ which is characteristic of Christianity. It is thus distinct from ~φιλία~, \@friendship\@ (#Jas 4:4 only), ~στοργη~, \@natural affection\@ (in the NT only in its compounds, v. s. ~ἄστοργος~ 794) and ~ερως~ \@sexual love,\@ which is not used in the NT, in its place being taken by ~επιηυμια~ 1939.
  4. Romans 1:29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
  5. 2 Corinthians 6:14 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? 14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace. 15 What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid. 16 Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?
  6. 2 Corinthians 12:20 For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and [that] I shall be found unto you such as ye would not: lest [there be] debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults: 21 And lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail many which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which they have committed.
  7. 2 Corinthians 13:5 Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves. Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates? 6 But I trust that ye shall know that we are not reprobates. 7 ¶ Now I pray to God that ye do no evil; not that we should appear approved, but that ye should do that which is honest, though we be as reprobates. 8 For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth. 9 For we are glad, when we are weak, and ye are strong: and this also we wish, even your perfection. 10 Therefore I write these things being absent, lest being present I should use sharpness, according to the power which the Lord hath given me to edification, and not to destruction.
  8. Acts 17:7 Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.
  9. Acts 8:3 As for Saul, he made havock of the church, entering into every house, and haling men and women committed [them] to prison.
    Acts 9:1 ¶ And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest,
    Acts 9:20 And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God. 21 But all that heard him were amazed, and said; Is not this he that destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests?
    Acts 22:4 And I persecuted this way unto the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. ... 19 And I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue them that believed on thee:
    20 And when the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting unto his death, and kept the raiment of them that slew him.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 3874 ~παράκλησις~ paraklesis \@par-ak’-lay-sis\@ from 3870 beseech or comfort even exhort; TDNT-5:773,778; {See TDNT 592} n f AV-consolation 14, exhortation 8, comfort 6, intreaty 1; 29
    1) a calling near, summons, (esp. for help)
    2) importation, supplication, entreaty
    3) exhortation, admonition, encouragement
    4) consolation, comfort, solace; that which affords comfort or refreshment
    4a) thus of the Messianic salvation (so the Rabbis call the Messiah the consoler, the comforter)
    5) persuasive discourse, stirring address
    5a) instructive, admonitory, conciliatory, powerful hortatory discourse
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 3870 ~παρακαλέω~ parakaleo \@par-ak-al-eh’-o\@ from 3844 and 2564; v AV-beseech 43, comfort 23, exhort 21, desire 8, pray 6, intreat 3, misc 4, vr besought 1; 109
    1) to call to one’s side, call for, summon
    2) to address, speak to, (call to, call upon), which may be done in the way of exhortation, entreaty, comfort, instruction, etc.
    2a) to admonish, exhort
    2b) to beg, entreat, beseech
    2b1) to strive to appease by entreaty
    2c) to console, to encourage and strengthen by consolation, to comfort
    2c1) to receive consolation, be comforted
    2d) to encourage, strengthen
    2e) exhorting and comforting and encouraging
    2f) to instruct, teach
  12. 2288 ~θάνατος~ thanatos \@than’-at-os\@ from 2348; TDNT-3:7,312; {See TDNT 299} n m AV-death 117, deadly 2; 119
    1) the death of the body
    1a) that separation (whether natural or violent) of the soul and the body by which the life on earth is ended
    1b) with the implied idea of future misery in hell
    1b1) the power of death
    1c) since the nether world, the abode of the dead, was conceived as being very dark, it is equivalent to the region of thickest darkness i.e. figuratively, a region enveloped in the darkness of ignorance and sin
    2) metaph., the loss of that life which alone is worthy of the name,
    2a) the misery of the soul arising from sin, which begins on earth but lasts and increases after the death of the body in hell
    3) the miserable state of the wicked dead in hell
    4) in the widest sense, death comprising all the miseries arising from sin, as well physical death as the loss of a life consecrated to God and blessed in him on earth, to be followed by wretchedness in hell
  13. 5486 ~χάρισμα~ charisma \@khar’-is-mah\@ from 5483; TDNT-9:402,1298; {See TDNT 840} n n AV-gift 15, free gift 2; 17
    1) a favour with which one receives without any merit of his own
    2) the gift of divine grace
    3) the gift of faith, knowledge, holiness, virtue
    4) the economy of divine grace, by which the pardon of sin and eternal salvation is appointed to sinners in consideration of the merits of Christ laid hold of by faith
    5) grace or gifts denoting extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating on their souls by the Holy Spirit
  14. 4893 ~συνείδησις~ suneidesis \@soon-i’-day-sis\@ from a prolonged form of 4894 "to understand with others"; n f AV-conscience 32; 32
    1) the consciousness of anything
    2) the soul as distinguishing between what is morally good and bad, prompting to do the former and shun the latter, commending one, condemning the other
    2a) the conscience
  15. 390 ~ἀναστρέφω~ anastrepho \@an-as-tref’-o\@ as a noun is 391 from 303 and 4762; TDNT-7:715,1093; {See TDNT 752} v AV-return 2, have conversation 2, live 2, abide 1, overthrow 1, behave (one’s) self 1, be used 1, pass 1; 11
    1) to turn upside down, overturn
    2) to turn back
    3) to turn hither and thither, to turn one’s self about, sojourn dwell in a place
    4) metaph. to conduct one’s self, behave one’s self, live
  16. 2961 ~κυριεύω~ kurieuo \@ko-ree-yoo’-o\@ from 2962; TDNT-3:1097,486; {See TDNT 418} v AV-have dominion over 4, exercise lordship over 1, be Lord of 1, lords 1; 7
    1) to be lord of, to rule, have dominion over
    2) of things and forces
    2a) to exercise influence upon, to have power over