https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=PONcAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb_hover&pg=GBS.PA82 Part II OP PERSONS PERTAINING TO THE HIERARCHY OF JURISDICTION IN GENERAL - i.e . , OF ECCLE . SIASTICS , AS VESTED WITH JURISDICTIO EC CLESIASTIC4 IN GENERAL .
CHAPTER I DEFINITION OF THE CHURCH - MEANING OF THE WORD HIERARCHY IN GENERAL .
181. - 1 . The Church is defined: “Societas externa , visibilis , atque ad finem mundi duratura, completa et independens , distincta quoque , ac pro fine habens , omnibus hominibus procurandi media ad assequendam vitam aeternam."1 Let us explain this definition .
182. - 1 . The Church is a society ; for she is named in Sacred Scripture a kingdom,2 a city that is set on a mountain,3 etc. These symbols clearly imply that she is4 a society. Theologians also prove that she is external, visible, and indefectible.
183. — 2 . The Church is, secondly, a perfect and independent society. A society is perfect when it is complete in itself, and therefore contains within itself adequate5 means to attain its end. That our Lord has given his Church means sufficient to attain her end is evident from various texts of Sacred Scripture.6 A society is independent when it is not subject to the authority of any other society.7 Now, every person in the world is bound to obey the Church in matters pertaining to the sanctificatio animarum.8 But if no individual is exempt from the authority of the Church, it is evident that no body of individuals -- i.l . , no society — is de jure exempt from it. The Church, therefore, is not subject to civil society , but9 entirely independent of it; nay, more, civil society, as far as the sanctificatio animarum is concerned, is subordinate to the Church .
1 Craisson , I. c . , n . 244 . 2 Matt . iv . 17 . 3 Ib . , V. 14. 4 5 Tarqu. , Jur. Eccl. Publ. inst. , n. 6, 42.
184. - 3 . The Church , thirdly , is distinct though not separate from civil society. ' '
185. From what has been said we infer : 1. The Church is not merely a corporation ( collegium ) or part of civil society. Hence , the maxim " is false , “ Ecclesia est in statu, " or , the Church is placed under the power of the state. The Church is rightly named a Sovereign State. This is proved by Soglia12 in these words : “ Ex definitione Puffen dorfii , Status est conjunctio plurium hominum , quae imperio per homines administrato , sibi proprio , et aliunde non depen dente , continetur . Atqui ex institutione Christi , Ecclesia est conjunctio hominum , quae per homines , hoc est , per Petrum et Apostolos , corumque successores administratur cum imperio sibi proprio , nec aliunde dependente ; ergo Ecclesia est Status. "
186. The members of the Church13 are divided into two classes : 1. Clerics or ecclesiastics ( clerici ) , i.e. , those who belong to the hierarchia14 ordinis ; 2 , Laics ( laici ) , i.e. , the rest of the faithful.15
6 Matt . xviii . 18 , xxviii . 18 , 19 ; Luc . X. 16 : Jo . XXI . 15–18 7 Craisson , Man . , n . 245 . 8 Matt . xviii . 17. Cfr . Prop . 19 , 20 of Syllab . 1864 9 Bouix , De Princip . , p . 507 10 Salzano , vol . i . , pp . 18 , 19 11 Bouix , De Princip . , p . 509 12 19 Vol.i. , p 137 . 13 Tarq Vol.i. , p 137 . 13 Taru . , 1. c . , p . 92 . 14 Soglia , vol .i. , p. 144 15 Devoti , lib . i . tit . 1 , § 1 , p . 72 .
187. -11 Meaning of the term Hierarchy (Heirarchia). - “The word hierarchy, sacred power (sacer principetus), or pre-eminence (sacra praefectura), are synonymous.16 The term hierarchy, taken subjectively, denotes the body of persons having sacred or ecclesiastical power; as such, it is defined: “The body of persons having in various degrees sacred power or pre-eminence”.17 taken objectively, it signsifies the power itself in sacred things; as such, it is defined: “Sacred power as possesed by various persons in defferent degrees.”18 Observe here we use the word power both for the potestas ordinis and the potestas jurisdictionis.”
- Elements of Ecclesiastical Law: Compiled with Reference to the Latest Decisions of the Sacred Congregations of Cardinals : Adapted Especially to the Discipline of the Church in the United States. Ecclesiastical persons, Sebastian Bach Smith, Benzinger Brothers, 1887 - Canon law - 583 pages
16 Matt . xviii . 18 , xxviii . 18 , 19 ; Luc . X. 16 : Jo . XXI . 15–18 7 Craisson , Man . , n . 245 . 8 Matt . xviii . 17. Cfr . Prop . 19 , 20 of Syllab . 1864 . 9 Bouix , De Princip . , p . 507 10 Salzano , vol . i . , pp . 18 , 19 11 Bouix , De Princip . , p . 509 . 12 Vol.i. , p 137 13 Tarqu . , 1. c . , p . 92 . 14 Soglia , vol . i . , p . 144 . 15 Devoti , lib . i . tit . 1 , § 1 , p . 72 .
“188. The word hierarchy, therefore, comprises three things : I, sacred power or ecclesiastical authority; 2, a number of persons possessing it; 3, rank and gradation among these persons.19 The hierarchy, therefore, whether of ' order or jurisdiction , is vested in an organized body of ecclesiastics ; the Roman Pontiff is the head of this organization .
189. Division of the Hierarchy of the Church. - 1 . By rea son of its origin , the hierarchy is divided into divine — that , namely , which was instituted by our Lord , and consists of bishops, priests, and ministers;20 and into ecclesiastical - or that which was developed by ecclesiastical authority , v.g. , the dignity of patriarchs,21 primates, archbishops , and the like. 2. By reason of the sacred power vested in ecclesiastics, it is divided into, 1, the hierarchy of order ( hierarchia ordinis ) -that is, the power to perform sacred acts or functions and to confer sacraments ; 2, the hierarchy of jurisdiction (hierarchia jurisdietionis ) —that is , the power to teach, define dogmas, and oblige the faithful to believe in them; to make laws; to take cognizance of, and adjudicate upon , ecclesias tical causes; lo enforce the laws of the Church , and there fore to inflict suspension , excommunication, deposition, and other penalties; to convene councils, preside over and confirm them; to erect benefices and appoint their incum bents; to dispose of ecclesiastical property, etc.22 Some canonists contend that this division is inadequate, since it does not sufficiently take into account the teaching power of the Church (potestas magisterii ). Consequently, they divide the hierarchy into the power (a) of order, (6) jurisdiction , ( c ) and magisterii, thus adding the latter to the two former.23 This, however, is superfluous. For, as Card. Tarquini well remarks, if this magisterium is a purum magiste rium, or simply the office of preaching and teaching , it is no power, and therefore cannot be called “potestas magis terii. " But if it means the power to compel the faithful to believe in the doctrines defined , it is part of , and therefore contained in, the power of jurisdiction . Hence it is not necessary to recede from the division of the ecclesiastical hierarchy commonly received in Catholic schools24 _ namely, into that of order and jurisdiction.
190. In the present volume, we shall discourse merely on the hierarchia jurisdictionis . We shall , 1 , give a correct idea of the nature of the jurisdictio ecclesiastica ; this will form the Second part of this book ; 2 , show of what per sons the hierarchia jurisdictionis is composed - i.l . , in whom the jurisdictio ecclesiastica is vested ; this will make up the Third Part of this work. 26 Bouix , 1. c . , p . 513 . 27 Ib . , p . 514 . 28 Ib . 29 Ib . , p . 515 . 30 Conc . Trid . , sess . 23 , cap . iv . , can . 6 . 31 Bouix , 1. c . , pp . 515 , 516 .