Difference between revisions of "Herod"

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: “The Zealots were a splinter group of the Pharisees. The [[Pharisees]] were content to ignore the Romans. The Zealots were not. They wanted to drive them out. They planned to establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth - a kingdom ruled by God and not by man. When Jesus said ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s’, the Zealots would have agreed with him. For all the produce of God’s land belonged to God and this included the Roman tribute. The main Zealot center was Galilee. The revolt really started when Galilee was annexed to the Roman province in 44 C.E.”<Ref name="Steimatzky">The Holy Land, By Peter Connolly, Steimatzky BOOKS </Ref>
 
: “The Zealots were a splinter group of the Pharisees. The [[Pharisees]] were content to ignore the Romans. The Zealots were not. They wanted to drive them out. They planned to establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth - a kingdom ruled by God and not by man. When Jesus said ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s’, the Zealots would have agreed with him. For all the produce of God’s land belonged to God and this included the Roman tribute. The main Zealot center was Galilee. The revolt really started when Galilee was annexed to the Roman province in 44 C.E.”<Ref name="Steimatzky">The Holy Land, By Peter Connolly, Steimatzky BOOKS </Ref>
  
 +
{{census}}
  
*    '''Herod Archelaus''' (23 BC–c. AD 18), ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea from 4 BC to 6 AD, when Judaea province was formed under direct Roman rule, at the time of the Census of Quirinius.<Ref name="Quirinius">Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat mentioned in Res Gestae - The Deeds of Augustus by Augustus placing him as consul as early as 12 B.C.. Caesar's son Gaius Caesar was sent to administer Syria as an Imperial Legate in 1 B.C. and the Roman historian Tacitus Annals mentions in Book 3 Chapter 48 that Quirinius was an advisor to Gaius around 1 A.D Quirinius was later the governor of Syria during another census. </Ref> He was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, the brother of Herod Antipas, and the half-brother of Herod Philip I. In 4 BC Augustus allotted to him the greater part of the kingdom (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) with the title of ethnarch (not king).
 
 
Archelaus is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13-23). In it, Joseph, Mary and Jesus fled to Egypt to avoid the Massacre of the Innocents. When Herod the Great died, Joseph was told by an angel in a dream to return to Israel (presumably to Bethlehem). However, upon hearing that Archelaus had succeeded his father as ruler of Judaea he "was afraid to go thither" ([[Matthew 2]]:22), and was again notified in a dream to go to Galilee. This is Matthew's explanation of why Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea but grew up in Nazareth.
 
 
The beginning and conclusion of Jesus's Parable of the minas in the Gospel of [[Luke 19]]:12-27 may refer to Archelaus' journey to Rome. Some interpreters conclude from this that Jesus' parables and preaching made use of events familiar to the people as examples for bringing his spiritual lessons to life. Others read the allusion as arising from later adaptations of Jesus's parables in the oral tradition, before the parables were recorded in the gospels.
 
  
 
*    '''Herod Antipas''' (20 BC–c. AD 40), tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, called "Herod the Tetrarch" or "Herod" in the New Testament up to Acts 4:27, and described therein as ordering John the Baptist's death and Jesus. Some believe he repented and converted to Christianity.
 
*    '''Herod Antipas''' (20 BC–c. AD 40), tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, called "Herod the Tetrarch" or "Herod" in the New Testament up to Acts 4:27, and described therein as ordering John the Baptist's death and Jesus. Some believe he repented and converted to Christianity.

Latest revision as of 12:15, 14 January 2020


Temple of Herod

There were lots of temples and they had a governmental purpose. The Second Temple expanded by Herod to be the Temple in Jerusalem was no exception.


Originally Israel only built a tabernacle that moved about. David started building a stone temple after the people rejected God in 1 Samuel 8 but repented. Solomon who increased the yoke of the people built the first temple and later in Ezra a modest Second Temple was built. Herod the Great would find the funds and a way to expand that temple of dead stone.

Those baptized into Herod's government went to Herod's temple to receive welfare and Social Security and other public benefits distributed through local synagogues. More on the two types of baptism.

Judea began following this Roman and ancient social model that reached back to the days of Babylon and Nimrod in earnest with Herod the Great's own free Bread and circuses with a system dependent upon registration through the synagogues and Temple in Jerusalem.

His system for the Jew would include Baptism, scribes to do the accounting and a Corban that would make the word of God to none effect. King Herod also built temple for the same function as his Temple in Jerusalem including King Herod's Temple to Roma and Augustus.

Herod the Great had a grand scheme of a vast membership in a social welfare scheme called Corban.[1] You joined with a ceremony of ritual baptism after filing an application for membership with the administering “scribe”.[2] Payment of prescribed fees was required and annual accounting of what you paid or did not pay was made available to the proper authorities.

With annual contributions collected and recorded by the scribes this system of individual sacrifice to support the needy of society became popular with many people who were jealous and envious of the rich or just covetous of their neighbor’s goods. With guaranteed entitlements and forced contributions the apathy and avarice of the people flourished.

Members were given a white stone as a form of national ID[3] and Herod was able to expand his hope of a kingdom of God on earth by this religious system of social security (Corban) which provided for a statutory enforcement and collection from membership in the form of a tax.

The actual carved stone used in the aqueduct that brought water into Jerusalem. Using certain public funds for this government building project enraged the people to riot because they saw a breech of trust.
Herod and the Pharisees with the help of a corrupt Sanhedrin had set up a system of social security where citizens had to pay in as registered members. This system of Legal charity by force would "make the word of God to none effect" and the people wold become human resources for the rulers who called themselves benefactors. This system of Corban would also cause families to breakdown as the primary social unit and curse children as a surety for the debt of the New Deal. It would eventually divide society rather than bring them together, weaken the poor like the Sin of Sodom, and degenerate individuals into perfect savages.

Pilate "... used the sacred treasure of the temple, called corban (qorban), to pay for bringing water into Jerusalem by an aqueduct. A crowd came together and clamored against him..."[4] Because those funds were for their individual social welfare and the people complained.

Few understood that what should have been for their welfare had brought them into bondage though they had been warned centuries before in the sacred text.[5] Paul and others repeated that warning for the First century Church.[6] But Modern Christians are oblivious because they hire pastors who tickle their ears with Christian fables.

Building a central temple of dead stone was never a part of God's plan for men. It was Lively Stones of a Living Altar which is God's plan for mankind. Jesus Christ knew why the "ancient men" wept in Ezra 3:12 at the building of the Second Temple[7] and came to take the kingdom of God from the Pharisees and men who did not bear fruit and was building that original temple of lively stones with men of faith who let God write upon their heart and upon their minds.

There were rebels, malcontents, and doomsdayers as always. There were tax protesters, religious zealots, and extreme fundamentalists who spoke of moral declines, collapsing economies, and other calamities to come.

“The Zealots were a splinter group of the Pharisees. The Pharisees were content to ignore the Romans. The Zealots were not. They wanted to drive them out. They planned to establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth - a kingdom ruled by God and not by man. When Jesus said ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s’, the Zealots would have agreed with him. For all the produce of God’s land belonged to God and this included the Roman tribute. The main Zealot center was Galilee. The revolt really started when Galilee was annexed to the Roman province in 44 C.E.”[8]

Census

Description_Census during Christ's birth (Luke 2)_. Full audio play on YouTube __Time 7:53
"And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed." Luke 2:1

The word we see translated "tax" appears three times[9] in Luke and actually means "specifically to enter in public records the names of men, their property and income; to enroll".[10] It also appears in Hebrews but is translated "written".[11] In the Old Testament the firstborn were specifically the Levites who were the "called out in the wilderness" and in the New Testament the "called out" were the disciples of Jesus who were called the church and appointed by Christ, our mediator.[12]

The Romans seldom did anything without a purpose, a plan, and the hope of profit. To have a good plan they needed good information. When Augustus' commemorative account of his achievements (Res Gestae) prominently featured the geographical cataloging of peoples and places within the Empire. Geography, the census, and the meticulous keeping of written records were central concerns of Roman Imperial administration.[13]

There were from 45 to 65 million people in the Roman Empire at different times and a census was often scheduled every 5 years. Augustus's own census information recorded almost 5,000,000 citizens of Rome.[14]

This was no small task and required a uniform method, places to store the record and people you could trust. This is where the Temples, often built by the Roman government provided the place and the trusted priests and priestesses, in the case of Rome, performed the process.

Shortly before Julius Caesar, the Romans depended upon nd all voluntary army. Gaius Marius and the Marian Reforms' moved to a professional army which did more to alter Roman society than many realize.[15]

The vast wealth accumulated by Generals bought them prestige and political power. Those gifts, gratuities, and grants to the people by congiarium[16]not only bought the "license to do no wrong"[17] it robbed the people of the responsibility of doing what is right through their deceitful dainties.

These deceitful dainties of rulers were also offered to the Roman client states or allies. They would also be obligated to provide tribute and even supply reinforcements to the Roman army. As provinces would be required to show consent by agreement and make "a register of cities", a "census of the population, and a "surveying the land".[18] Their government recordkeeping included births and deaths, real estate transactions, taxes, and juridical proceedings. [19] Among these client states were Pontus, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Judea, Palestine, and, by 65 BCE, Armenia. In Africa Mauretania, Algeria and Morocco also became client states.

In order to be taxed, you must be counted. Both the benefits and the Tax obligations were determined by the census, which required each head of a household to appear before the presiding official and provide a headcount of his household, as well as an accounting of property he owned that was suitable for agriculture or habitation.[20]

A census as well as taxation in those days required some form of accounting and usually required a token to mark[21] those who had been counted. The census called for by Augustus “was regarded as the badge of servitude, and incompatible with the Theocratic character of Israel”.[22]

Judea did not hate Rome. Many loved and desired their protection, generosity, and social security; besides, they were good for business. There were rebels, as always. There was corruption, as always. Caesar was the protector of their peace, the benefactor of their welfare.

Many Jews loved the Emperor (Emperator),[23] the commander-in-chief of the multinational military force that kept the peace throughout the world. Augustus Caesar offered many gifts, gratuities, and benefits as the Patronus of the Pax Romana, The Father of Roman Peace.

“The annual Temple-tribute was allowed to be transported to Jerusalem, and the alienation of these funds by the civil magistrates treated as sacrilege. As the Jews objected to bear arms, or march, on the Sabbath, they were freed from military service. On similar grounds, they were not obliged to appear in courts of law on their holy days. Augustus even ordered that, when the public distribution of corn or of money among the citizens fell on a Sabbath, the Jews were to receive their share on the following day. In a similar spirit the Roman authorities confirmed a decree by which the founder of Antioch, Seleucus I. (Nicator, [d Ob.280 B.C.]) had granted the Jews the right of citizenship in all the cities of Asia Minor and Syria which he had built, and the privilege of receiving, instead of the oil that was distributed, which their religion forbade them to use, [e Ab. Sar ii. 6] an equivalent in money. [Jos.Ant. Xii. 3. 1]. These rights were maintained by Vespasian and Titus even after the last Jewish war, not with standing the earnest remonstrances of these cities. No wonder, that at the death of Caesar the Jews of Rome gathered for many nights, waking strange feelings of awe in the city, as they chanted in mournful melodies their Psalms around the pyre on which the body of their benefactor had been burnt, and raised their pathetic dirges.”[24]

The call for all the world to be taxed was a call for all the world to be enrolled as the beneficiaries of the The Father of Roman Peace.

“The year 2 B.C. marked the 25th anniversary of Caesar Augustus’s rule and the 750th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Huge celebrations were planned. The whole empire was at peace. The doors of the temple of Janus were closed for only the third time in Roman history. To honor their emperor, the people were to rise as one and name him pater patriae, or Father of the Country. This enrollment, described in the Book of Luke, which brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, has always been a mystery since no regular census occurred at this time. But the pater patriae enrollment fits perfectly.”[25]

"Parens patriae" is Latin for “father of the Fatherland” a title originally accorded in the form parens urbis Romanae, or "parent of the Roman city". It was accorded to Marcus Furius Camillus in 386 BC because he led the city's recovery after its capture by the Gauls (c. 390 bc). In the legal system, "parens patriae is a doctrine that allows the state to step in and serve as a guardian for children, the mentally ill, the incompetent, the elderly, or disabled persons who are unable to care for themselves."[26]


Parens patriae is Latin for "parent of the nation". Parens patriae is not just an ancient doctrine but is found as the power of the modern state to control the activities of the people in Title 15 Commerce and Trade[27], Title 12, Banks And Banking[28], Title 18. Crimes And Criminal Procedure[29], Title 49. Transportation[30] and Title 42. Public Health and Welfare[31] of the United States Codes[32] and the laws of the several states.


The enrolment in the benefits schemes of the state alters the relationship and status of the people. Many Jews refused to register on religious grounds and were considered "idiotes".[33] The more people apply to the benefaction of the state the more power the state has over the people. Plutarch wrote in his "Life of Coriolanus" (c. 100 AD.), "That the man who first ruined the Roman people twas he who first gave them treats and gratuities." But Polybius had warned the people 250 years earlier what their fate would be the fate of the nation if they become accustomed to taking these treats and gratuities of the State.

Herod the Great needed the favor and support of Rome and conformed to the changes that were taking place in Rome to maintain his ruling power. He was for the census and enrolment in his own scheme set up with the help of the Pharisees which perverted the ancient system of Corban into an entitlement program no longer dependent on freewill offerings.

Some put the date at 4BC at Herod's death in 4BC but that is highly disputed and likely wrong based on a misidentified lunar eclipse. There were other eclipses. It is possible that a transcriber or the author of Luke's gospel made an error identifying which census. There were also a number of the local census of varying kinds and what Quirinius was doing and when ruling is also disputed because there is some evidence that he was in charge during other periods including some rebellions in Galilee. None of this is substantive to the message. Some people even try disputing the existence of Christ with this conflicting information. These dates used is based on Josephus who does not dispute Christians and verifies them with Book 20, Chapter 9, 1 of the Antiquities with the line "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James". Herod was a client king of Judea who rebuilt the Second Temple (in Jerusalem) known as Herod's Temple. He instituted the Baptism of the temple that established the Corban of the Pharisees that according to Jesus made the word of God to none effect.

Besides registering the adults you would also have to register newborn children just as Rome was doing. Some opposed this registration of children on religious and doctrinal bases but some understood it was part of a three-step plan according to Jus Romanus (Roman Law) to make the State the Father of the people.

  • "Birth registration in ancient Rome. Birth certificates for Roman citizens were introduced during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–14 AD). Until the time of Alexander Severus (222–235 AD), it was required that these documents be written in Latin as a marker of "Romanness" (Romanitas)."[34]

"Birth registration" was important to create a uniform rule for the distribution of benefits, duties, and obligations. It was a part of a three-step process founded in natural law to create a legal system which made the State the Father of a nation.

The government of Rome provided many benefits like free bread through the Imperial Cult of Rome run through the government-sponsored Temples. These certificates were stored in the Temple of Saturn. Religion had always been the institution providing for the poor or needy of society such as widows and orphans. From the Altars of Clay and Stone of Abraham and Moses there were safeguards[35]in the practice of religion among the Israelites to prevent the Levite priests from gaining to much power. There were also constitutional limitations imposed by the Bible in Deuteronomy 17 if the people elected to create any offices of power such as kings, presidents, or prime ministers. When these safeguards against tyranny were ignored or forgotten governments of the world became corrupt, society began to decay, and its members began to degenerate.

Herod’s greatest fault was his ungovernable passion both in love and hate. This coupled with his constant fear of losing this throne led to most of his ‘crimes’ especially those committed within his own family.”[8]
  • Herod Archelaus (23 BC–c. AD 18), ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea from 4 BC to 6 AD, when Judaea province was formed under direct Roman rule, at the time of the Census of Quirinius.[36] He was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, the brother of Herod Antipas, and the half-brother of Herod Philip I. In 4 BC Augustus allotted to him the greater part of the kingdom (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) with the title of ethnarch (not king).

Archelaus is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13-23). In it, Joseph, Mary, and Jesus fled to Egypt to avoid the Massacre of the Innocents. When Herod the Great died, Joseph was told by an angel in a dream to return to Israel (presumably to Bethlehem). However, upon hearing that Archelaus had succeeded his father as ruler of Judaea he "was afraid to go thither" (Matthew 2:22), and was again notified in a dream to go to Galilee. This is Matthew's explanation of why Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea but grew up in Nazareth.

The beginning and conclusion of Jesus's Parable of the minas, the master gives 10 of his servants one mina each and tells them to engage in trade while he is away. This parable in the Gospel of Luke 19:12-27 may refer to Archelaus' journey to Rome. Some interpreters conclude from this that Jesus' parables and preaching made use of events familiar to the people as examples for bringing his spiritual lessons to life. Others read the allusion as arising from later adaptations of Jesus's parables in the oral tradition before the parables were recorded in the gospels.


  • Herod Antipas (20 BC–c. AD 40), tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, called "Herod the Tetrarch" or "Herod" in the New Testament up to Acts 4:27, and described therein as ordering John the Baptist's death and Jesus. Some believe he repented and converted to Christianity.

After being named to the throne by Caesar Augustus upon the death of his father, Herod the Great, in 4 BC, and subsequent Ethnarch rule by his brother, Herod Archelaus, Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea as a client state of the Roman Empire. He was responsible for building projects at Sepphoris and Betharamphtha, and more important for the construction of his capital Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Named in honor of his patron, the emperor Tiberius, the city later became a center of rabbinic learning.

Antipas divorced his first wife Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabatea, in favour of Herodias, who had formerly been married to his brother Herod Philip I. (Antipas was Herod the Great's son by Malthace, while Herod II was his son by Mariamne II.)

While Archelaus was deemed incompetent by Augustus and replaced with a prefect in 6 AD, Antipas would govern Galilee and Perea for forty-two years.

Antipas faced more immediate problems in his own tetrarchy after John the Baptist – in 28/29 AD according to the Gospel of Luke.

Among those baptized by John was Jesus of Nazareth, who began his own ministry in Galilee – causing Antipas, according to Matthew and Mark, to fear that the Baptizer had been raised from the dead.

Luke alone among the Gospels states that a group of Pharisees warned Jesus that Antipas was plotting his death, whereupon Jesus denounced the tetrarch as a "fox" and declared that he, Jesus, would not fall victim to such a plot because "it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem".

Antipas' fall from power was due to Caligula and to his own nephew Agrippa, brother of Herodias. When Agrippa fell into debt during the reign of Tiberius despite his connections with the imperial family, Herodias persuaded Antipas to provide for him, but the two men quarreled and Agrippa departed.

  • Herod II (c. 27 BC–33 AD), sometimes called Herod Philip I, father of Salome
  • Philip the Tetrarch (4 BC–AD 34), sometimes called Herod Philip II, tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis
  • Herod Agrippa I (c. 10 BC–AD 44), client king of Judaea, called "King Herod" or "Herod" in Acts 12 of the New Testament
  • Herod of Chalcis, also known as Herod III, king of Chalcis (AD 41–48)
  • Herod Agrippa II (AD 27–100), tetrarch of Chalcis who was described in Acts of the Apostles as "King Agrippa" before whom Paul of Tarsus defended himself
  • Herodes Atticus (AD 101–177), an unrelated Greek aristocrat who served as a Roman Senator and proponent of Sophism


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Footnotes

  1. Mark 7:13 “Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.”
  2. Scribe is from the Greek grammateus meaning “a clerk, scribe, esp.a public servant, secretary, recorder, whose office and influence differed in different states”
  3. “The missionaries… with their... white stones, would come back with the same wallets full of money, in foreign currency. Once put into Jewish currency by the money-changers [porters of the temple], it would be stored in vaults ...Herod’s scheme of initiation into a new form of Judaism was immensely successful....” Jesus and the Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Barbara Thiering, Harper Collins: 1992
  4. 20The Aqueduct- Josephus, War 2.175-177, Antiq 18.60-62.
  5. 22“And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them:” Romans 11:9. Exodus 20:17, Exodus 23:32, Exodus 34:12...; Proverbs 1:10, Proverbs 23:1...; Romans 13:9, Mark 7:22, Matthew 5:34, James 5:12, 2 Peter 2:3
  6. Episkeptomai “ to look upon or after ... have care for, provide for:”
  7. Ezra 3:12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, [who were] ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; and many shouted aloud for joy: 13 So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people: for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off.
  8. 8.0 8.1 The Holy Land, By Peter Connolly, Steimatzky BOOKS
  9. Luke 2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed <583>.
    Luke 2:3 And all went to be taxed <583>, every one into his own city.
    Luke 2:5 To be taxed <583> with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
  10. 583 ~ἀπογράφω~ apographo \@ap-og-raf’-o\@ from 575 and 1125; v AV-tax 3, write 1; 4
    1) to write off, copy (from some pattern)
    2) to enter in a register or records
    2a) spec. to enter in public records the names of men, their property and income
    2b) to enroll
  11. Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
  12. Hebrews 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than [that of] Abel.
  13. Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire. Claude Nicolet, (1991). University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10096-5.
  14. "A third time, with the consular imperium, and with my son Tiberius Caesar as my colleague, note I performed the lustrum in the consulship of Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius. In this lustrum 4,937,000 Roman citizens were entered on the census roll. By the passage of new laws I restored many traditions of our ancestors which were then falling into disuse, and I myself set precedents in many things for posterity to imitate." Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Section 8, Tablet 2. (Eng. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus)
    Latin, "Et tertium consulari cum imperio lustrum conlega Tib. Caesare filio meo feci, Sex. Pompeio et Sex. Appuleio cos. Caesare filio meo feci Sex. Pompeio et Sex. Appuleio cos., quo lustro censa sunt civium Romanorum capitum quadragiens centum millia et nongenta triginta et septem millia. Legibus novis me auctore latis multa exempla maiorum exolescentia iam ex nostro saeculo reduxi et ipse multarum rerum exempla imitanda posteris tradidi." Res Gestae Divi Augusti.
    Note: "civium Romanorum capitum" literally translates "of the heads of the citizens of the Romans".
  15. Citizen militia to a professional army; Removed property requirement of legionnaire and allowed Capite Census to join; State supplied wages and armor; allowed officers and soldiers to profit from loot and plunder.
  16. Of Ancient Roman containers, a congiarium, or congiary, was a vessel containing one congius, a measure of volume equal to six sextarii. In the early times of the Roman Republic, the congius was the usual measure of oil or wine which was, on certain occasions, distributed among the people; and thus congiarium became a name for liberal donations to the people whether consisting of oil, wine, grain, or money, or other things.
  17. “In my 13th consulship I gave 60 denarii to each plebeian who was at that time receiving bread from the state. A little more than 200,000 people availed of this congiarium” (Deeds of Augustus [Res Gestae]
    Some emperors granted 100s of denarii beside free bread and other commodities every year.
  18. Potter (2009), p. 183.
  19. Potter (2009), pp. 177–179.
  20. A Companion to the Roman Empire, David S. Potter, ed. (2009). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-9918-6.
  21. A common token could be a clay Tesserae.
  22. The sole grounds of resistance to the census, appears from Jos. Ant. xviii. 1. 1, 6.
  23. Emperator, emperatoris m. commander in chief. Collins L.E. Dict. ‘62.
  24. Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Chapt. V, Alfred Edersheim, Jewish convert to Christianity and a Biblical scholar.
  25. The Star of Bethlehem by Crag Chester, Imprimis D/96 Hilsdale College.
  26. https://study.com/academy/lesson/parens-patriae-in-juvenile-justice-definition-doctrine.html
  27. 15 U.S. Code § 15 Applicability of parens patriae actions § 15h. Applicability of parens patriae actions Sections 15c, 15d, 15e, 15f, and 15g of this title shall apply in any State...
  28. Title 12. Banks And Banking, Chapter 53. "the State, as parens patriae, may bring a civil action on behalf of its residents in an appropriate district court...
  29. Title 18. Crimes And Criminal Procedure, Part I. Crimes, Chapter 77. Peonage, Slavery, And Trafficking, In Persons, Section 1595. Civil Remedy adversely affected by any person who violates section 1591, the attorney general of the State, as parens patriae, may bring a civil action against such person on behalf of the residents of the State...
  30. Title 49. TRANSPORTATION, ...the attorney general of the state may, as parens patriae,” for “a State authority may”...
  31. Title 42. THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE, Chapter 7. SOCIAL SECURITY... residents of that State has been or is threatened or adversely affected by any person who violates a provision of this part, the attorney general of the State, as parens patriae, may bring...
  32. Search parens patriae at https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/searchResultsForm.html
  33. idiōtēs (ἰδιώτης) from idios meaning as 'pertaining to one's self, one's own, belonging to one's self'. "Etymology. Idiot as a word derived from the Greek idiotes, idiotes ('a private citizen', 'individual'), from idios, idios ('private', 'one's own')." https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Idiot#Etymology
  34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_registration_in_ancient_Rome
  35. Contributions were freewill offerings not forced. Levites had no personal estate but held all things common.
  36. Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat mentioned in Res Gestae - The Deeds of Augustus by Augustus placing him as consul as early as 12 B.C.. Caesar's son Gaius Caesar was sent to administer Syria as an Imperial Legate in 1 B.C. and the Roman historian Tacitus Annals mentions in Book 3 Chapter 48 that Quirinius was an advisor to Gaius around 1 A.D Quirinius was later the governor of Syria during another census.


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